Q.
What's the point of converting to LucyTuning? 
A. To provide a tuning system which is more precise than
conventional Western tuning (12 note equal temperament [12tET]),
and matches the musical harmonics. This allows musicians greater
versatility and control over consonance and dissonance, and
provides a wider vocabulary and palette of intervals, harmonies,
and pitches. See the Introduction
to tuning codes, or the initial 1987 Sunday
Times article.

Q.
How accurate is LucyTuning? 
A. As accurate as you wish it to be. In practice this is
determined by the pitch resolution of your equipment and instruments
and/or the acuity of your ears.

Q.
How does LucyTuning reconcile the anomalies and contradictions
of Just Intonation and other whole number ratio (WNR) tuning
systems, which aim for zero beating? 
A. LucyTuning uses a better physical and mathematical model
for mapping harmonic relationships. This model is a dynamic
three dimensional spiral instead of the traditional two dimensional
static sine wave, and shows that harmonics beat at low frequencies.

Q.
Are any notes tuned the same as 12tET? 
A. Yes, All A's are derived from A4=440 Hz., which is the
International Standard for tuning. All LucyTuned A's are the
same frequency as A's in 12tET. i.e. LucyTuning has an octave
ratio of 2. A2 = 110Hz. A3 = 220 Hz. A5 = 880 Hz. etc.

Q.
Are all notes other than A's tuned differently? 
A. Yes. If harmonically related to A by steps of fifths,
(sharp keys) they are flatter than their 12tET equivalents,
if related by fourths (flat keys) they are sharper than their
12tET equivalents.

Q.
Can I freely modulate and transpose in LucyTuning? 
A. Yes. The system works in a spiral instead of a circle
as is found in integer ratio 2 equal temperaments. By steps
of fourths or fifths you can move to any number of new and
unique notes and pitches. Flat keys via fourths and sharp
keys via fifths.

Q.
Is a note of a particular name always the same pitch? 
A. Yes, all notes are of unique pitch and name and may be
described by: a) A single letter of the alphabet, between
A and G,[eg. E] followed by, b) none or any whole number of
sharps or flats [eg. Ebb] and c) An octave number (which as
with conventional notation runs from C to C.) [eg. Ebb4].

Q.
How is a note sharpened or flattened? 
A. By multiplying or dividing the frequency of the note by
the ratio of the difference between one Large and one small
interval. i.e (Ls). [eg. The intervals Ab to A, and A to
A# are both (Ls). The intervals Ab to A#, Abb to A, and A
to Ax (##) are all (2L2s) i.e. (Ls)*2.]

Q.
Can I use conventional instruments to play LucyTuning? 
A. It depends upon which instruments you wish to play.
a) For fretted instruments you will need to
move or replace all frets except the octaves, and retune the
open strings. See details on refretting
instruments.
b) For keyboard instruments, you will need to
retune all notes except the A's, and decide whether each of
the notes used are sharp or the adjacent flat. Using many
MIDI instruments, this may be achieved in software. See details
on LucyTuning
and MIDI.
c) All other instruments can play LucyTuning
by retuning and subtle fingering and/or embouchure adjustments.
Erv Wilson's
hexagon marimba/keyboard layout and tubalong
layout.

Q.
Can LucyTuning be used to play ethnic scales and tunings? 
A. Yes, LucyTuning technology can be used to code any scale
or tuning system, and to play any scale that you can imagine.See
details of Lucy Scalecoding

Q.
How many notes per octave does LucyTuning use? 
A. As many as you like. In practice, it is easiest to begin
with 12, 19, 21, 25, 31 or 53 notes per octave and increase
the number of notes as you gain more experience.

Q.
How and when was LucyTuning discovered / invented? 
A. The earliest written records that have been found which
state that all musical scales may be derived from pi (the
ratio of the diameter to the circumference of a circle) were
by the British horologist John Harrison (16931776). The system
may have been used in earlier times, yet documentary or archeological
evidence is yet to be found. Charles Lucy was the first person
in modern times to translate Harrison's ideas, computer model
the mathematics, and design musical instruments to play it.

Q.
Is the mathematics and physics of this system entirely understood? 
A. Much work has been done on the mathematics. The models
have been found to be mathematically consistent and to provide
an infinite number of notes since they are derived from the
transcendental number pi. Many physical experiments have been
performed and the system appears to provide a better model
for mapping musical harmonics than any other that has been
found to date. Further work is continuing on the implications
for theories in fundamental mechanics.

Q.
How does LucyTuning relate to tunings derived from the Fibonacci
series (phi) and e? 
A. Both values may be shown to be mathematically related
to pi.

Q.
Why does LucyTuning work so well and sound so correct? 
A. The system is related to pi, and it seems that sound waves
move in spherical and rotating dynamic patterns.

Q.
How can I try out LucyTuning on my instruments? 
A. EMail to Charles Lucy
from here. (lucy@harmonics.com) asking for tuning codes
or fret positions (giving the nut to bridge distance for your
instrument).

Q.
Are recordings of LucyTuned music readily available? 
A. Yes, many recordings by Arc Angel use LucyTuning: as do
LucyTuned Lullabies

Q.
What are the psychoacoustic effects on listeners? 
A. As using LucyTuning harmoniously generates low
frequency beating in the Alpha and sub Alpha ranges, hypnotic
and trance states have been observed and reported by users.

Q.
Are MIDI files and keyboard fingering the same in LucyTuning? 
A. Yes, keyboard players can retune their instruments to
play the system, and maintain the same fingering. For
details on keyboard note assignment

Q.
Does LucyTuning match the rules of music theory? 
A. Yes, except that it is derived from Large(L) and small(s)
intervals instead of Wholetones and semitones of 12tET. It
is a diatonic, negative meantone
temperament. LucyTuning can map any combination and permutation
of Large and small intervals that you can imagine for all
Western scales and all known "ethnic" scales, plus
an infinity of new possibilities.

Q.
What are Large and small intervals? 
A. On a conventional keyboard you can consider the Large
interval as being the interval between two white notes separated
by a black note. [AB, CD, DE, FG, and GA]. The ratio
is the two pi root of 2. i.e 1200/(2*pi) = approx 191 cents.
The small interval as the interval between adjacent white
notes. [BC, and EF.] (1200((1200/2*pi)*5))/2 = approx 122½
cents. If you consider a complete circle to be one octave,
the Large interval is the radian angle i.e. 360/(2*pi) degrees.
This is the angle of divergence between the fourths and fifths,
or the flat and sharp directions of the spiral. See LucyTuning
homepage for associated links

Q.
How many Large and small intervals are there in an octave? 
A. Five Large plus two small intervals are one octave.

Q.
How can I describe the major scale in LucyTuning? 
A. LLsLLLs. Eg. CDEFGABC. Scale coding is 6/0/2
(6 steps of fourths and fifths/no missing steps/
note 2 is the tonic)
Eg. for the string of IVIVIIVIIIIVII (in
the key of C this is FCGDAEB ascending from C).
See details of Lucy
ScaleCoding

Q.
Have instruments of more than 12 notes per octave been designed
and manufactured to play LucyTuning? 
A. Yes, of many sorts and designs. LucyTuning
homepage for more details

Q.
Does LucyTuning also provide a new way of mapping rhythm? 
A. Yes, by using Long(L) and short(s) durations.

Q.
How is pitch related to color? 
A. By octaving up frequencies to wavelengths at the speed
of light and mapping wavelengths to time and color. Notes
on Pitch to Colour ideas

Q.
Can LucyTuning be played with 12tET fixed interval instruments? 
A. Yes, although the 12tET instruments will sound "out
of tune".

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